Create a routine that works for you
To obtain quality sleep for optimized performance there are some tried and true practices that can get you to dreamland. The first thing to do is establish and maintain a bedtime routine.
The purpose of the routine is to optimize your sleep so you can be productive, mentally sharp, emotionally balanced, and full of energy on the following day.
- Establish a target bedtime and adhere to it.
- Sleep in a comfortable, cool, quiet, dark, and safe area.
- Relax and wind down to get ready to sleep for 30–60 minutes before lights out.
Establish a consistent bed/wake time, even on weekends. However, if you have not obtained adequate sleep during the week, do "sleep in" on weekends to help pay off the sleep debt that you accumulated over the prior week.
1. Set a bedtime
When setting bedtime, backwards plan to set the appropriate number of hours of sleep you need. This ensures your ability to have adequate time to wind down, bathe, brush your teeth, and prepare for the next day.
Example of a bedtime routine using backward planning
Adjust this recommended schedule according to your individual needs. Your schedule will depend on your unit, mission, operational environment, and whether you live on or off post. Example of bedtime routine incorporating sleep habits:
- What time do you need to be at work? 6:00 AM
- When do you leave your home/room? 5:40 AM
- Time to get out of bed and get ready to leave? 5:15 AM
- Alarm goes off 5:00 AM
- No Caffeine after 3:00 PM
- No strenuous exercise after (NLT 3 hours before bed) 6–7 PM
- Have dinner no later than 6–7 PM
- Stop TV/Emails/Facebook 7–8 PM
- Wind down (30–60 min) 8–9:30 PM
- Bed time (NLT for 7–8 hours of sleep) 9–10 PM
Things to consider when planning your sleep routine:
- Commute time
- Personal hygiene, breakfast
- How long does it take to PT or work out?
- Do you need a few minutes to become alert?
- Household chores
- Putting children to bed
- Taking the dog out for last walk
- Time for yourself and/or partner
- Prayers, meditation, relaxation etc.
2. Prepare your sleep area
Having a comfortable sleep area is essential for good quality sleep. Comfortable means different things to different people. Take a look at your sleep area, is it soothing, relaxing, and conducive to sleep? For some, comfort is a freshly made bed with soft sheets. For others it is a mattress and pillow that supports their sleep positions.
Whatever your preferences, ensure that your sleep area is 'sleep friendly' for you. Your sleep area should be dark, cool, and quiet. Use room darkening curtains or blinds to make the room dark and block light from outside. Use soft ear plugs and/or soothing white noise to block or mask environmental noise.
The safety of the sleep area is largely determined by where you are. In the U.S. and most garrisons in the western hemisphere, your housing is generally considered to be in a safe area. In a deployed setting, safe is a relative term. It will depend on your location, current operations, and operational environment. In such situations, getting as much sleep as you can, whenever you can, will be important. Despite any danger, it is important that you sleep in relative safety, taking appropriate force and individual protection measures.
In an operational or training environment put safety first. Sleep away from vehicular traffic and do not sleep in front of, behind, or under trucks, tracked vehicles, etc. Avoid and protect against environmental hazards and pests. Take care to ensure snakes, spiders etc., are not in your sleeping area, bag, or shoes.
What about my room?
Take the time to look at your room and determine if it is sleep friendly. Your ability to enhance your room's sleep friendliness may vary depending on where your situation. Focus on what you can change and do it. Use SLANT to help make your environment sleep friendly.
Click here for more information on how environmental factors degrade soldier sleep in the field. Improving these factors can boost the recuperative value of sleep.
What about my bed?
Getting good quality sleep may be less about your bed and more about your mattress. In fact, Soldiers with an uncomfortable mattress have lower motivation, lower morale, higher fatigue, and higher body pain than Soldiers with a comfortable mattress. You may need a new mattress if:
- Your mattress is five to seven years old
- You wake up with stiffness, numbness, aches and pains
- You had a better night's sleep somewhere other than your own bed (such as a hotel or friend's guest room)
- Your mattress shows signs of overuse (it sags, has lumps, etc.)
3. Relax and wind down
Give yourself 30–60 minutes every night to transition to sleep. The process of winding down for the night may include a warm bath or shower, listening to relaxing music, or reading books. Other relaxing activities may include journaling, breathing exercises, meditation, or interacting with your bed partner if you have one. During this period, your routine should not include watching television, playing video games, getting online, or using other electronics.
Winding down suggestions:
- Take a warm bath or shower
- Do some easy stretches
- Wind down with a favorite hobby like knitting, drawing, puzzles, and Soduku (not on an electronic device)
- Listen to audio books or soft music
- Read a book or magazine by a soft light (not electronic version)
- Make simple preparations for the next day
- Take out clothes for the next morning
- Plan and prep for breakfast
- Set the coffee maker timer to brew
- Brush/pet your dog or cat; watch your fish swim
The last and most important part of the bedtime routine is turning out the bedroom lights and climbing into bed! Most people fall asleep within 5-20 minutes of going to bed. Remember that adhering to a consistent bed and wake time is important, so be sure to leave time each night bedtime routine.
One indicator that you are probably getting adequate sleep is if you are able to wake up without an alarm clock on weekdays. Some people experience challenges getting to sleep or staying asleep. If this is you, review the sleep habits section below for additional suggestions on how to get the best possible sleep.
4. Incorporate good sleep habits into your bedtime routine
Establishing a bedtime routine helps you get good quality sleep. Sleep supports your ability to be disciplined and to think clearly in order to meet all of your responsibilities as a Soldier, Family member, and friend.
Practice good sleep hygiene
Protect Your Sleep Time||
Protect Your Sleep Environment|
No TV/music, etc. during sleep time||
QUIET—use foam earplugs to block and/or room fan to “mask”
No late-night texting; internet||
DARK—block windows or wear sleep mask|
No phone calls||
Effective Sleep habits
If you want good quality sleep night after night, well-planned strategies will help. Discover and develop your personal tactics for ensuring a good night's sleep. Stick with routines that work for you and they will become habits. Remember, a predictable approach will result in an easy transition to sleep. Also, learn to avoid common sleep thieves and try a variety of healthy sleep.
The Ten Effective Sleep Habits
Source: Army Surgeon General’s Performance Triad Sleep Working Group
1. Create a quiet, dark, comfortable sleeping environment. Cover windows with darkening drapes or shades, or wear a sleep mask to block light. Minimize disturbance from environmental noises with foam earplugs or use a room fan to muffle noise. If you can, adjust the room temperature to suit you. If you cannot, use extra blankets to stay warm or a room fan to keep you cool.
2. Remove distractions from the bedroom. Use the bedroom only for sleep and intimacy. Remove the TV, computer, laptop, and other electronic distractions from your bedroom. Do not eat or drink in bed. Keep discussions or arguments out of the bedroom.
3. Stop caffeine consumption at least 6 hours before bedtime. Caffeine promotes wakefulness and disrupts sleep – even in those individuals who think that caffeine does not affect their ability to sleep.
4. Do not drink alcohol before bed. Alcohol initially makes you feel sleepy but disrupts and lightens your sleep several hours later. In short, alcohol reduces the recuperative value of sleep. Nicotine, and withdrawal from nicotine in the middle of the night, also disrupts sleep. If you need help quitting drinking or using nicotine products, see your healthcare provider for options.
5. Time intense exercise sessions appropriately. Exercising is great; just be sure to finish strenuous exercise (i.e., sessions in which you exercise to near-exhaustion) at least 3 hours before bedtime so that you have plenty of time to wind down. Mild to moderate levels of exercise (strenuous enough to raise metabolic rate but not strenuous enough to cause the release of sleep-stealing stress hormones) can be performed anytime – and might actually help you get deeper, more restorative sleep.
6. Do not go to bed hungry. A light bedtime snack (eg, milk and crackers) can be helpful, but do not eat a large meal close to bedtime. Empty your bladder just before you go to bed so that the urge to urinate does not disrupt your sleep.
7. Maintain a consistent, regular routine that starts with a fixed wake-up time. Start by setting a fixed time to wake up, get out of bed, and get exposure to light each day. Pick a time that you can maintain during the week and on weekends, then, adjust your bedtime to target 7+ hours of sleep.
8. Get out of bed if you cannot sleep. Only go to bed (and stay in bed) when you feel sleepy. Do not try to force yourself to fall asleep; it will tend to make you more awake, worsening the problem. If you wake in the middle of the night, give yourself about 20 minutes to return to sleep. If you do not return to sleep within 20 minutes, get out of bed and do something relaxing. Do not return to bed until you feel sleepy.
9. Nap wisely. Napping can be a good way to make up for poor or reduced nighttime sleep, but too much napping can cause problems falling asleep or staying asleep at night. Using short naps (20-30 minutes) to "to take the edge off" your sleepiness, when needed.
10. Move the clock from your bedside to where you cannot see it. If you tend to check the clock multiple times during the night and worry that you are not getting enough sleep, cover the clock face or turn it around so that you cannot see it.
Mantua, J., Ritland, B.M., Naylor, J.A., Simonelli, G., Mickelson, C.A., Choynowski, J.J., Bessey, A.F., Sowden, W.J., Burke, T.M. and McKeon, A.B., 2021. Physical sleeping environment is related to insomnia risk and measures of readiness in US army special operations soldiers. BMJ Mil Health.